|중국 견제 위해 美-英-호주 안보동맹 AUKUS 결성(기사)
|홈 페 이 지
||2021년 9월 16일 23시 55분 33초 [목요일]
|美 英 호주 핵잠동맹 '오커스' 띄워 中견제
호주에 핵잠수함 기술 지원
(3국 정상 영상회의)
미국, 영국, 호주가 인도·태평양 지역에서 중국의 위협에 대처하기 위해 새로운 3각 안보 동맹을 결성했다. 첫 협력 분야로 호주 해군에 핵추진 잠수함 기술을 이전하기로 했다. 이어 사이버 능력, 인공지능, 양자기술, 해저능력 등 최첨단 군사 기술을 공유하고 상호 운용 능력을 높여나갈 방침이다.
조 바이든 미국 대통령, 보리스 존슨 영국 총리, 스콧 모리슨 호주 총리 등 3개국 정상은 15일 오후(현지시간) 영상으로 만나 새 국가 안보 파트너십인 '오커스(AUKUS)'를 구성했다고 공동 발표했다. 오커스는 호주, 영국, 미국 국가명을 순서대로 따서 만들어졌다. 3국 정상은 21세기 도전에 대응하기 위해 인도·태평양 지역에서 외교, 안보, 국방 협력을 심화하기로 했다고 밝혔다. 인도·태평양으로 영향력을 확대하려는 중국을 견제하겠다는 의지를 분명히 한 것이다.
오커스는 호주 해군이 핵추진 잠수함 전력을 갖추도록 18개월 동안 기술적·전술적으로 지원할 계획이다. 중국과 대치하고 있는 호주로서는 강력한 전략적 자산을 확보하게 된다.
이에 따라 바이든 행정부는 전통 군사 동맹인 북대서양조약기구(NATO), 영어권 5개국 정보 동맹인 '파이브아이즈', 미국·일본·인도·호주 등 4개국 안보협의체인 '쿼드'에 이어 오커스까지 다양한 동맹국 조합으로 중국을 포위·압박하는 형국이다. 이에 대해 자오리젠 중국 외교부 대변인은 "배타적인 소그룹을 만드는 것은 시대착오적"이라며 "핵 수출을 지정학 게임 도구로 삼는 것은 지극히 무책임한 처사"라고 비난했다.
Aukus: UK, US and Australia launch pact to counter China
BBC/16 Sep, 2021
The UK, US and Australia have announced a historic security pact in the Asia-Pacific, in what's seen as an effort to counter China.
It will let Australia build nuclear-powered submarines for the first time, using technology provided by the US.
The Aukus pact, which will also cover AI and other technologies, is one of the countries' biggest defence partnerships in decades, analysts say.
China has condemned the agreement as "extremely irresponsible".
Foreign ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said it "seriously undermines regional peace and stability and intensifies the arms race".
China's embassy in Washington accused the countries of a "Cold War mentality and ideological prejudice".
The pact also created a row with France, which has now lost a deal with Australia to build 12 submarines.
"It's really a stab in the back," France's Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian told France Info radio.
The new partnership was announced in a joint virtual press conference between US President Joe Biden, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson and his Australian counterpart Scott Morrison on Wednesday.
And while China was not mentioned directly, the three leaders referred repeatedly to regional security concerns which they said had "grown significantly".
Speaking to the BBC, UK Defence Secretary Ben Wallace said China was "embarking on one of the biggest military spends in history".
"It is growing its navy [and] air force at a huge rate. Obviously it is engaged in some disputed areas," he said. "Our partners in those regions want to be able to stand their own ground."
In recent years, Beijing has been accused of raising tensions in disputed territories such as the South China Sea.
On Thursday, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the pact would "preserve security and stability around the world" and generate "hundreds of high-skilled jobs".
He also said the relationship with France was "rock solid".
The Aukus alliance is probably the most significant security arrangement between the three nations since World War Two, analysts say.
The pact will focus on military capability, separating it from the Five Eyes intelligence-sharing alliance which also includes New Zealand and Canada.
While Australia's submarines is the big-ticket item, Aukus will also involve the sharing of cyber capabilities and other undersea technologies.
"This is an historic opportunity for the three nations, with like-minded allies and partners, to protect shared values and promote security and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region," the joint statement read.
"This really shows that all three nations are drawing a line in the sand to start and counter [China's] aggressive moves in the Indo-Pacific," said Guy Boekenstein from the Asia Society Australia.
Western nations have been wary of China's infrastructure investment on Pacific islands, and have also criticised China's trade sanctions against countries like Australia.
Australia had in the past maintained good relations with China, its biggest trading partner. But the relationship has broken down in recent years amid political tensions.
But there is tension now too with France, after Australia tore up the A$50bn (€31bn; £27bn) deal to build 12 submarines.
"We had established a relationship of trust with Australia, this trust has been betrayed," Mr Le Drian said.
Why nuclear-powered submarines?
These submarines are much faster and harder to detect than conventionally powered fleets. They can stay submerged for months, shoot missiles longer distances and also carry more.
Having them stationed in Australia is critical to US influence in the region, analysts say.
The US is sharing its submarine technology for the first time in 50 years. It had previously only shared technology with the UK.
Australia will become just the seventh nation in the world to operate nuclear-powered submarines, after the US, UK, France, China, India and Russia.
Australia has reaffirmed it has no intention of obtaining nuclear weapons.
Meanwhile New Zealand said it would ban Australia's submarines from its waters, in line with an existing policy on the presence of nuclear-powered submarines.
New Zealand, although a Five Eyes member, has been more cautious in aligning with either the US or China in the Pacific.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said her nation had not been approached to join the pact.
‘Stabbed in the back’: France ‘regrets’ AUKUS nuclear submarine deal that scuttled its multi-billion contract with Australia
Russia Today/16 Sep, 2021
A new plan to equip Australia with nuclear-powered submarines using US and UK technology may be aimed to counter China, but steps on the toes of NATO ally France, which lost a massive shipbuilding contract with Canberra.
US President Joe Biden, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison and his British counterpart Boris Johnson announced the ‘AUKUS’ initiative in a three-way virtual event on Wednesday. It is supposed to start 18-month consultations to eventually provide Australia with nuclear-powered but conventionally armed submarines – making it the first non-atomic nation with such weapons.
French shipbuilder Naval Group reportedly expressed “disappointment” at the announcement, as it meant Canberra was abandoning their contract for a dozen diesel-electric submarines. The Australian press has reported the value of that contract at AU$90 billion (US$66 billion).
The Naval Group contract was personally backed by French President Emmanuel Macron, who promised “full and complete” commitment to it as recently as June, according to AFP – even as Australia was already in talks with London and Washington, apparently.
Canberra’s “regrettable” decision was “contrary to the letter and the spirit of the cooperation which prevailed between France and Australia,” French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian and Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly said in a joint response to the AUKUS announcement.
Both Le Drian and France’s former ambassador to the US, Gerard Araud, later said their country had been “stabbed in the back.”
Part of the problem with the Naval Group deal was that the Australian government was insisting on doing the manufacturing and sourcing the components locally, according to Reuters. At least one Australian MP has already wondered whether Canberra will make the same demands in the AUKUS deal, or simply buy off-the-shelf designs from Washington and London.
Australian Defense Minister Peter Dutton and Foreign Minister Marise Payne are already in Washington, while PM Scott Morrison is expected to arrive later this month.
The Royal Australian Navy currently operates six Collins-class submarines, based on a Swedish design and built between 1990 and 2003 in Port River, near Adelaide. Canberra had made a deal with Naval Group in 2016 for a dozen new vessels, but the contract has since “broken down over a series of disagreements over spiralling costs, design changes, schedule slippage and local industry involvement,” according to the Australian outlet Financial Review.
After one European think-tank fellow called the cancellation “a knife in the back to Paris on a very important deal for France as it looked to solidify [its] own complementary role in the Indo-Pacific,” an Australian journalist in Berlin disagreed.
Australia was “long unhappy with the cost blowouts and missed deadlines of [the] French programme,” argued Trent Murray. “In the eyes of Canberra, Naval Group simply didn’t deliver what was being paid for.”
The AUKUS arrangement has both financial and political implications for France, numerous observers have pointed out. The French government has a 62% stake in Naval Group, with the remaining third held by Thales, itself partly state-owned. Losing the contract to the US and UK would also be a “major blow for Macron” and “could prompt a rethinking in France about strategic alliances with the Anglosphere,” said a Reuters correspondent in Paris.
The statement by Le Drian and Parly appears to bear this out, as they pointed out the “regrettable” decision by Australia “reinforces the need to raise the issue of European strategic autonomy” as the only “credible way to defend our interests and our values in the world.”